Articles Posted in Race (Title VII)

Litigating against the the EEOC is difficult for several reasons. For one, unlike a lawsuit brought by an individual plaintiff, a suit brought by the EEOC has the resources of the entire federal government behind it. Perhaps because of the agency’s bureaucratic structure, negotiating with EEOC counsel can be difficult during litigation, at times resulting in a total breakdown of communication. A recent decision by a federal court in Illinois illustrates what happens when the lawyers in an employment-discrimination lawsuit take the driver’s seat to the exclusion of the individuals at the heart of the case.

EEOC v. DHL Express (USA), Inc., was brought by the EEOC on behalf of 94 claimants, alleging that DHL discriminated against its African-American driver/dockworkers based on their race by giving them less desirable, more difficult, and more dangerous route and dock assignments than their Caucasian counterparts and by assigning African-American drivers to routes in predominately African-American areas.

DHL brought a motion to compel the EEOC to produce all of the claimants for deposition after the EEOC provided interrogatory responses that included an unsworn “vignette” for each claimant with the claimants’ general allegations of discrimination. DHL argued that individual depositions were required because the vignettes were vague, filled with generalities, and, in several instances, inaccurate. DHL also argued that, because there is no standard as to what constitutes a “more dangerous assignment” and no objective criteria for what constitutes “less desirable,” each claimant’s individual testimony was necessary to establish its defense.

Workplace anti-harassment training can be summarized with the title of this post. The fact that an employee laughs at an inappropriate joke is not a legal defense to a later claim at harassment. Nor is an employee’s failure to object to inappropriate workplace conduct. One employer recently learned this lesson the hard way.

In the case of EEOC v. Holmes & Holmes Industrial, Inc., the EEOC filed suit against a construction company on behalf of several Black employees, alleging hostile work environment claims. To succeed in a case alleging discrimination based on a hostile work environment, a plaintiff must prove that he or she was subject to (1) intentional discrimination, that was (2) severe or pervasive (3) and subjectively offensive to the plaintiff, and (4) that would be objectively offensive to a reasonable person in the plaintiff’s position.

In support of its claims against Holmes & Holmes, EEOC asserts that the employee-claimants faced frequent, racially-charged comments from their managers and co-workers. EEOC also contended that supervisors frequently told racial jokes. In response, the employer argued that the employees engaged in similar conduct, frequently using racial slurs and terms.

In Meditz v. City of Newark (PDF), the Third Circuit concluded that the City of Newark, New Jersey’s residency requirement may have unlawful disparate impact on non-Hispanic white applicants.  The case was brought Gregory Meditz, an attorney acting pro se.  Meditz alleged that the City’s residency requirement disparately impacted white, non-Hispanics and, as a result, white, non-Hispanics were under-represented in the City’s workforce.

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Meditz, a white male, applied for a job as an Analyst with the City of Newark, New Jersey.  He was rejected for the job because he lived in Rutherford, New Jersey and a City ordinance required that non-uniformed employees live within City limits.  Meditz filed suit, alleging that the City’s residency requirement negatively impacted the hiring of white, non-Hispanics.

In support of his suit, Meditz provided statistical information that he’d gathered from publicly available sources.  Newark argued that the disparity reflected by the statistics were not sufficiently substantial.  The federal district court agreed with the City and found that the statistical evidence Meditz presented did not “constitute sufficient evidence of a significantly discriminatory hiring pattern.”  The Third Circuit Court of Appeals did not agree and reversed.

Music may be an art form to some.  But some music may be a form of harassment.  The EEOC has reach an agreement with Novellus Systems wherein the San-Jose based employer will pay $168,000 to a former employee for race-based harassment.  The claim alleges that the employee was terminated after he complained about racially offensive music played by a co-worker.

Gangsta' Rap Coloring Book

Michael Cooke worked at Novellus Systems for more than ten years. Cooke, an assembly technician, claimed that he was terminated after he complained about racially offensive music played at work by a co-worker.  The suit alleged that a 27-year-old co-worker would play rap music and rap along, using lyrics that included derogatory racial slurs, including the “N-word.”

Cooke complained to the co-worker, a Vietnamese-American, and to his supervisors about the language in the songs.  But the co-worker continued to sing along using racial slurs within hearing distance of Cooke.  After a year and a half of the co-worker singing and Cooke complaining, the suit alleges, Cooke was dismissed in retaliation for his complaints.

Good documentation practices during the hiring process can help employers avoid a failure-to-hire claim.  And that’s a good thing, considering that failure-to-hire claims are costly. Just ask Perdue.  The poultry company has agreed to a pay out of more than $800k to settle a claim of disparate impact arising from what the DOL concluded to be systematic discrimination against non-Hispanic job applicants. 

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Disparate Impact Claim

A Labor Department news release states an evaluation in 2005 and 2006 by the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) found the Salisbury-based company failed to comply with federal employment laws at its poultry processing plants in Rockingham, N.C., Dillon, S.C., and Monterey, Tenn. (The OFCCP has jurisdiction because Perdue supplies poultry under a federal contract to the U.S. Department of Agriculture.)

The settlement agreement will require Perdue to pay $800,000 in back wages and interest to 750 women and minorities who were not hired during the relevant time period.  The company also will make employment offers to some of those who were not hired but who are still interested in employment with Perdue.  In those cases, the employees will receive retroactive company service dates for purposes of benefits and promotion rights. 

NASCAR has been sued for race discrimination, gender discrimination, and sexual harassment.  The plaintiff, a black female former official, seeks $225 million in damages.

NASCAR Discrimination Suit

The plaintiff, Mauricia Grant, worked as a technical inspector in NASCAR’s second-tier Nationwide Series until she was fired in October 2007. She’d been with the organization since 2005, when she alleges the harassment and discrimination began. 

Her complaint, filed in federal court in New York, lists 23 specific instances of alleged sexual harassment and 34 specific instances of alleged gender and racial discrimination.

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) can add another major victory to the scorebooks.   Earlier this week, the Commission settled a discrimination lawsuit for $2.2 million.  The actions at issue are said to trace back to a supervisor who is no longer with the restaurant.  This should be a wake-up call for employers who don’t provide employment-law training to supervisors, helping to prevent and eliminate discrimination and harassment in the workplace. 

tavern on the green

Tavern on the Green

The hottest headline for EEOC settlements right now is the agreement reached with the legendary N.Y.C. landmark restaurant, Tavern on the Green. Earlier this week, the New York Times reported that the restaurant, located in Central Park, had agreed to pay $2.2 million to settle a sexual-harassment claim filed by the EEOC last September.

Tavern on the Green is a destination for many Big Apple visitors with discriminating tastes, as well as a regular dinner spot for the who’s who of New York’s social scene.  The restaurant opened in 1934 and, in the 50+ years since, has become the “highest-grossing independently owned restaurant in the United States with annual revenues in excess of $34 million and over half a million visitors a year.”

The Department of Justice has been sued by an employee who alleges racial discrimination and sexual and race-based harassment. 

DOJ

A 13-year veteran paralegal in the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice (DOJ) has filed suit claiming she was discriminated against and harassed by managers who repeatedly passed her over for advancement because she is African-American. Joi Hyatte alleges that the DOJ “actively” sought only white and Hispanic candidates for higher-paying analyst positions.

The complaint also says that the section chiefs failed to rein in or discipline three white male lawyers who “behaved in a racially and sexually offensive manner” toward two female analysts — one white, the other black. 

The United States Supreme Court is anything but anti-employee.  The Supreme Court’s decisions in Cracker Barrel and Gomez-Perez, filed yesterday, continue to broaden the limits of Section 1981 in favor of employees.

Recently, employee-advocate groups have made great sport out of attacking the Supreme Court’s employment-discrimination decisions–using them to raise the hue and cry for legislative reform. This week’s rulings in CBOCS West, Inc v. Humphries (the “Cracker Barrel” case), and Gomez-Perez v. Potter show that employee advocates and plaintiffs’ lawyers have little to complain about.

The Background of Section 1981U.S.S.C. Building

The Court’s 7-to-2 ruling in the Cracker Barrel case addressed a novel question of law: Whether there can be a claim of unlawful retaliation based on Section 1981. Section 1983, originally known as the Ku Klux Klan Act, was passed in 1871 during Reconstruction following the civil war.  The law was intended to provide a federal remedy for private conspiracies such as those being committed by the KKK, which the Southern state courts had been unsuccessful in prosecuting. In short, the law prohibits discrimination based on race in all aspects of contractual relationships, including written and unwritten employment contracts.

Racial discrimination comes in many forms and, following a recent opinion from the Second Circuit, discrimination due to an employee’s interracial relationship is one of them.

 

Employment discrimination laws prohibit employers from making decisions based on race, gender, religion, disability, and certain other characteristics.  Since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, these laws have addressed discrimination based on the characteristic of the employee.  But lately there has been an increase in cases of “associational discrimination.” 

Associational Discrimination 101

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